Resource Pricing

For all standard cosmos-sdk transactions (staking, IBC, etc), Celestia utilizes the default cosmos-sdk mechanisms for pricing resources. This involves incrementing a gas counter during transaction execution each time the state is read from/written to, or when specific costly operations occur such as signature verification or inclusion of data.

// GasMeter interface to track gas consumption
type GasMeter interface {
	GasConsumed() Gas
	GasConsumedToLimit() Gas
	GasRemaining() Gas
	Limit() Gas
	ConsumeGas(amount Gas, descriptor string)
	RefundGas(amount Gas, descriptor string)
	IsPastLimit() bool
	IsOutOfGas() bool
	String() string

We can see how this gas meter is used in practice by looking at the store. Notice where gas is consumed each time we write or read, specifically a flat cost for initiating the action followed by a prorated cost for the amount of data read or written.

// Implements KVStore.
func (gs *Store) Get(key []byte) (value []byte) {
	gs.gasMeter.ConsumeGas(gs.gasConfig.ReadCostFlat, types.GasReadCostFlatDesc)
	value = gs.parent.Get(key)

	// TODO overflow-safe math?
	gs.gasMeter.ConsumeGas(gs.gasConfig.ReadCostPerByte*types.Gas(len(key)), types.GasReadPerByteDesc)
	gs.gasMeter.ConsumeGas(gs.gasConfig.ReadCostPerByte*types.Gas(len(value)), types.GasReadPerByteDesc)

	return value

// Implements KVStore.
func (gs *Store) Set(key []byte, value []byte) {
	gs.gasMeter.ConsumeGas(gs.gasConfig.WriteCostFlat, types.GasWriteCostFlatDesc)
	// TODO overflow-safe math?
	gs.gasMeter.ConsumeGas(gs.gasConfig.WriteCostPerByte*types.Gas(len(key)), types.GasWritePerByteDesc)
	gs.gasMeter.ConsumeGas(gs.gasConfig.WriteCostPerByte*types.Gas(len(value)), types.GasWritePerByteDesc)
	gs.parent.Set(key, value)

The configuration for the gas meter used by Celestia is as follows.

// KVGasConfig returns a default gas config for KVStores.
func KVGasConfig() GasConfig {
	return GasConfig{
		HasCost:          1000,
		DeleteCost:       1000,
		ReadCostFlat:     1000,
		ReadCostPerByte:  3,
		WriteCostFlat:    2000,
		WriteCostPerByte: 30,
		IterNextCostFlat: 30,

// TransientGasConfig returns a default gas config for TransientStores.
func TransientGasConfig() GasConfig {
	return GasConfig{
		HasCost:          100,
		DeleteCost:       100,
		ReadCostFlat:     100,
		ReadCostPerByte:  0,
		WriteCostFlat:    200,
		WriteCostPerByte: 3,
		IterNextCostFlat: 3,

Two notable gas consumption events that are not Celestia specific are the total bytes used for a transaction and the verification of the signature

func (cgts ConsumeTxSizeGasDecorator) AnteHandle(ctx sdk.Context, tx sdk.Tx, simulate bool, next sdk.AnteHandler) (sdk.Context, error) {
	sigTx, ok := tx.(authsigning.SigVerifiableTx)
	if !ok {
		return ctx, sdkerrors.Wrap(sdkerrors.ErrTxDecode, "invalid tx type")
	params := cgts.ak.GetParams(ctx)

	ctx.GasMeter().ConsumeGas(params.TxSizeCostPerByte*sdk.Gas(len(ctx.TxBytes())), "txSize")

// DefaultSigVerificationGasConsumer is the default implementation of SignatureVerificationGasConsumer. It consumes gas
// for signature verification based upon the public key type. The cost is fetched from the given params and is matched
// by the concrete type.
func DefaultSigVerificationGasConsumer(
	meter sdk.GasMeter, sig signing.SignatureV2, params types.Params,
) error {
	pubkey := sig.PubKey
	switch pubkey := pubkey.(type) {
	case *ed25519.PubKey:
		meter.ConsumeGas(params.SigVerifyCostED25519, "ante verify: ed25519")
		return sdkerrors.Wrap(sdkerrors.ErrInvalidPubKey, "ED25519 public keys are unsupported")

	case *secp256k1.PubKey:
		meter.ConsumeGas(params.SigVerifyCostSecp256k1, "ante verify: secp256k1")
		return nil

	case *secp256r1.PubKey:
		meter.ConsumeGas(params.SigVerifyCostSecp256r1(), "ante verify: secp256r1")
		return nil

	case multisig.PubKey:
		multisignature, ok := sig.Data.(*signing.MultiSignatureData)
		if !ok {
			return fmt.Errorf("expected %T, got, %T", &signing.MultiSignatureData{}, sig.Data)
		err := ConsumeMultisignatureVerificationGas(meter, multisignature, pubkey, params, sig.Sequence)
		if err != nil {
			return err
		return nil

		return sdkerrors.Wrapf(sdkerrors.ErrInvalidPubKey, "unrecognized public key type: %T", pubkey)

Since gas is consumed in this fashion and many of the cosmos-sdk transactions are composable, any given transaction can have a large window of possible gas consumption. For example, vesting accounts use more bytes of state than a normal account, so more gas is consumed each time a vesting account is read from or updated.


There are four parameters that can be modified via governance to modify gas usage.

ParameterDefault ValueDescriptionChangeable via Governance
consensus/max_gas-1The maximum gas allowed in a block. Default of -1 means this value is not capped.True
auth/tx_size_cost_per_byte10Gas used per each byte used by the transaction.True
auth/sig_verify_cost_secp256k11000Gas used per verifying a secp256k1 signatureTrue
blob/gas_per_blob_byte8Gas used per byte used by blob. Note that this value is applied to all encoding overhead, meaning things like the padding of the remaining share and namespace. See PFB gas estimation section for more details.True

Gas Limit

The gas limit must be included in each transaction. If the transaction exceeds this gas limit during the execution of the transaction, then the transaction will fail.

Note: When a transaction is submitted to the mempool, the transaction is not fully executed. This can lead to a transaction getting accepted by the mempool and eventually included in a block, yet failing because the transaction ends up exceeding the gas limit.

Fees are not currently refunded. While users can specify a gas price, the total fee is then calculated by simply multiplying the gas limit by the gas price. The entire fee is then deducted from the transaction no matter what.

Fee market

By default, Celestia's consensus nodes prioritize transactions in their mempools based on gas price. In version 1, there was no enforced minimum gas price, which allowed each consensus node to independently set its own minimum gas price in app.toml. This even permitted a gas price of 0, thereby creating the possibility of secondary markets. In version 2, Celestia introduces a global minimum gas price, a consensus constant, unaffected by individual node configurations. Although nodes retain the freedom to increase gas prices locally, all transactions in a block must be greater than or equal to the global minimum threshold. If a block is proposed that contains a tx with a gas price below the global min gas price, the block will be rejected as invalid.

Estimating PFB cost

Generally, the gas used by a PFB transaction involves a static "fixed cost" and a dynamic cost based on the size of each blob involved in the transaction.

Note: For a general use case of a normal account submitting a PFB, the static costs can be treated as such. However, due to the description above of how gas works in the cosmos-sdk this is not always the case. Notably, if we use a vesting account or the feegrant modules, then these static costs change.

The "fixed cost" is an approximation of the gas consumed by operations outside the function GasToConsume (for example, signature verification, tx size, read access to accounts), which has a default value of 65,000.

Note: the first transaction sent by an account (sequence number == 0) has an additional one time gas cost of 10,000. If this is the case, this should be accounted for.

Each blob in the PFB contributes to the total gas cost based on its size. The function GasToConsume calculates the total gas consumed by all the blobs involved in a PFB, where each blob's gas cost is computed by first determining how many shares are needed to store the blob size. Then, it computes the product of the number of shares, the number of bytes per share, and the gasPerByte parameter. Finally, it adds a static amount per blob.

The gas cost per blob byte and gas cost per transaction byte are parameters that could potentially be adjusted through the system's governance mechanisms. Hence, actual costs may vary depending on the current settings of these parameters.

Tracing Gas Consumption

This figure plots each instance of the gas meter being incremented as a colored dot over the execution lifecycle of a given transaction. The y-axis is units of gas and the x-axis is cumulative gas consumption. The legend shows which color indicates what the cause of the gas consumption was.

This code used to trace gas consumption can be found in the tools/gasmonitor of the branch for #2131, and the script to generate the plots below can be found here (warning: this script will not be maintained).


Here we can see the gas consumption trace of a common send transaction for 1utia



Here we examine a more complex transaction.


PFB with One Single Share Blob

MsgPayForBlobs Single Share

PFB with Two Single Share Blobs

This PFB transaction contains two single share blobs. Notice the gas cost for pay for blob is double what it is above due to two shares being used, and there is also additional cost from txSize since the transaction itself is larger to accommodate the second set of metadata in the PFB.

MsgPayForBlobs with Two Blobs

100KiB Single Blob PFB

Here we can see how the cost of a PFB with a large blob (100KiB) is quickly dominated by the cost of the blob.

MsgPayForBlobs with One Large Blob